Effective as of April 28, 2017
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You are responsible for your own UGC and are responsible for the consequences of sending it through the Services. You must not do the following things: send or post UGC that is copyrighted, unless you are the copyright owner or have the permission of the copyright owner to post it; send or post UGC that reveals trade secrets, unless you own them or have the permission of the owner; send or post UGC that infringes on any other intellectual property rights of others or on the privacy or publicity rights of others or is otherwise unlawful; send or post UGC that is obscene, defamatory, threatening, harassing, abusive, hateful or embarrassing to any other person or entity; send or post a sexually-explicit image; send or post advertisements or solicitations of business; send or post chain letters or the like; or impersonate another person.
By sending or posting UGC, you warrant and represent that you own or otherwise control all of the rights to the content and use of your UGC by Britannica will not infringe or violate the rights of any third party. By sending UGC, you automatically grant to Britannica, a royalty-free, perpetual, irrevocable, non-exclusive license to use, reproduce, modify, publish, edit, translate, distribute, perform, and display it alone or as part of other works in any form, media, or technology whether now known or hereafter developed, and to sublicense such rights through multiple tiers of sublicensees. You retain the right to reuse your UGC as submitted to Britannica.
You may not use the Services or other communication mechanisms to sell, to trade, or for other commercial purposes. You may not send UGC through the Services that violates the rights of any third party or contains a virus or other harmful component. Nor may you use language or engage in any activity that is threatening, abusive, vulgar, discourteous, disruptive, or unlawful.
Please be aware that once you post UGC, there is the potential for the general public to read your words, even years from now. Britannica suggests that you exercise caution when posting UGC on the Services and that you not disclose personal identifiable information like your location, medical record number, financial information, etc.
Britannica does not have any obligation to monitor, edit or delete UGC, but may do so in its sole discretion. UGC including, but not limited to, the following may be deleted or edited by Britannica:
- Abusive or hurtful UGC about a commentor or another participant;
- Off-topic and redundant UGC (this includes promotion of events, groups, pages, Web sites, organizations and programs not related to or affiliated with Britannica);
- UGC that uses foul or hateful language;
- Personal attacks or defamatory statements or comments;
- UGC that violate the privacy of our users;
- UGC that is obscene, threatening, harassing, deceptive or fraudulent;
- UGC directed at children under the age of 13;
- UGC that may infringe any patent, trademark, trade secret, copyright, or other intellectual or proprietary right of any party or individual; and
- UGC that violates applicable laws or regulations.
By submitting UGC, you understand and acknowledge that this information is available to the public, and that we may use this information for internal and external promotional purposes. Please note that other visitors of the Services may use your posted UGC beyond the control of Britannica. If you do not wish to have the UGC you have made available via the Services used, published, copied and/or reprinted, please do not post UGC on the Services.
Linking to the Services. For details on how to link to the Services, click here. Please contact Britannica when you link to the Services, so that Britannica can better understand how its content is being accessed and so that you can be contacted when changes are made to the Services that could invalidate your links. Any linking to the Services will be at your own risk and expense.
By linking to the Services, you agree that you will not:
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- frame Britannica content, surround it with your own advertising or identity, or charge a fee for any link to the Services;
- link to the Services from any Web page or Web site containing libelous, obscene or criminal material, or material that infringes, violates, or advocates the infringement or violation of any third party rights; or
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Disclaimer of Warranties. THE SERVICES AND ALL INFORMATION, PRODUCTS, AND OTHER CONTENT INCLUDED IN OR ACCESSIBLE FROM THE SERVICES ARE PROVIDED “AS IS” AND WITHOUT WARRANTIES OF ANY KIND (EXPRESS, IMPLIED, AND STATUTORY, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE), ALL OF WHICH BRITANNICA EXPRESSLY DISCLAIMS TO THE FULLEST EXTENT PERMITTED BY LAW.
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SOME JURISDICTIONS DO NOT ALLOW LIMITATIONS ON IMPLIED WARRANTIES OR THE EXCLUSION OR LIMITATION OF CERTAIN DAMAGES, SO SOME OF THE ABOVE LIMITATIONS AND EXCLUSIONS MAY NOT APPLY TO YOU.
BINDING ARBITRATION AND CLASS ACTION WAIVER
This section applies to any dispute EXCEPT DISPUTES RELATING TO THE ENFORCEMENT OR VALIDITY OF BRITANNICA’S INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS. The term “dispute” means any dispute, action, or other controversy between you and Britannica or its directors, officers, shareholders, parents, subsidiaries, affiliates, agents, licensors or content providers concerning the Services or this Agreement, whether in contract, warranty, tort, statute, regulation, ordinance, or any other legal or equitable basis. “Dispute” will be given the broadest possible meaning allowable under law.
Binding arbitration. Any dispute will be conducted exclusively by binding arbitration governed by the U.S. Federal Arbitration Act. You are giving up the right to litigate (or participate in as a party or class member) all disputes in court before a judge or jury. Instead, all disputes will be resolved before a neutral arbitrator, whose decision will be final and binding. Any court with jurisdiction over the parties may enforce the arbitrator’s award.
Class action waiver. Any proceedings to resolve or litigate any dispute in any forum will be conducted solely on an individual basis. Neither you nor Britannica will seek to have any dispute heard as a class action, private attorney general action, or in any other proceeding in which either party acts or proposes to act in a representative capacity. No arbitration or proceeding will be combined with another without the prior written consent of all parties to all affected arbitrations or proceedings.
Claims or disputes must be filed within one year. To the extent permitted by law, any claim or dispute must be filed within one year. The one-year period begins when the arbitration notice first could be filed. If such a claim or dispute is not filed within one year, it shall be permanently barred.
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Consumer Subscriptions and
Parents and Guardians of Children Under 16 Years Old
Definitions. As used in these additional terms, “you” or “yours” refers to each person who establishes a subscriber account (“Account”) or who is authorized to access and use any of the Subscription Services.
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Termination of Subscription and Free Trial. Either party shall have the right to terminate your subscription at any time by providing notice of termination to the other. In the event of termination of your subscription by either party, you shall have no claims against Britannica or its affiliates. Termination of your subscriptions or free trial automatically terminates your license to use the Subscription Services and any content or other material contained therein. If you acquired an annual subscription to one of the Subscription Services and you terminate your subscription within 30 days of the date of activation of your Account, you are eligible to receive a refund of the subscription fee paid to Britannica; you must contact Britannica Customer Support to receive this refund. If you are a resident of the Netherlands, you can terminate at any time during your annual subscription, on 30 days notice, and receive a pro-rated refund. If you acquired a monthly subscription to the Subscription Services or if your subscription is acquired with a Promotion Certificate and you terminate your subscription, you will not receive any refund of the subscription fee paid to Britannica. If your subscription to the Subscription Services was acquired with a Gift Certificate and you terminate your subscription within 30 days of the date your Gift Certificate was acquired from Britannica, you are eligible to receive either: (a) a refund of the subscription fee paid to Britannica (available only to the party acquiring your Gift Certificate from Britannica); (b) a credit towards the price of acquiring other Britannica products or services; or (c) a credit towards the future subscription fee for an existing Subscription Services subscription. You must contact Britannica Customer Support to receive these remedies. If Britannica terminates your subscription, other than as a result of your breach of this Agreement, Britannica will refund to you a pro rata portion of the subscription fee paid to Britannica, if any, for the unexpired portion of your subscription.
Subscription Changes. If you acquired an annual subscription to the Subscription Services and you wish to change to another Subscription Service offering you may do so without penalty within 30 days of the activation of your Account. You must contact Customer Service to request this or other changes from one Subscription Service to another. If you acquired a monthly subscription to the Subscription Services and you wish to change to another Subscription Service offering, contact Customer Service, the change will be made effective when your current monthly term ends.
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Institutional Subscription Terms
Definitions. Institutional Subscribers may be a business (“Business”), government agency (“Agency”), school and related facilities (“School”), college or university (“University”) or public library (“Library”). “Authorized Users” are the following: (i) employees, agents or representatives in the case of Businesses and Agencies; (ii) students of Subscriber, its faculty members, administrators, and employed staff in the case of Schools; (iii) full or part-time students of Subscriber, its faculty members, administrators and employed staff in the case of Universities; and (iv) patrons, employees, agents or representatives in the case of Libraries.
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Nglish™ and Britannica English Arabic Translation
Ownership. All rights to the content contained in the Translation Products, including any words, definitions, idioms, expressions, translations (in English, Spanish, Arabic or any other language), diacritics and vowel signs, links between words’ voice files, grammatical inflections, topical word lists, graphic and game content, and any other content that appears in the Translation Products, are the sole property of Britannica, its affiliated companies or licensors.
User Registration. With respect to Nglish™ specifically, in order to save words in your personal file, you must register for “Nglish Dictionaries.” Registration to “Nglish Dictionaries” may be done through an online account you may have with a third party social networking site, using your email address, or any other valid registration process offered from time to time by Britannica. By registering with a Translation Product, you grant Britannica your explicit consent to notify you of version upgrades and changes to and promotions for the Translation Products provided by or through Britannia. If you wish to cease these notifications, please email your request to Britannica using the contact information provided within the related Translation Product.
All contents of the Services are © Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. or its licensors. All rights reserved. Encyclopædia Britannica is copyrighted 1994-2017 by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.
The 1997, 1998, 1999, 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014, 2015 and 2016 Britannica Books of the Year are copyrighted 1998, 1999, 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014, 2015, 2016 and 2017 respectively, by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.
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Merriam-Webster’s Collegiate® Dictionary (Eleventh Edition), Merriam-Webster’s Online Dictionary, and Merriam’s Webster’s Student Dictionary (Third Edition), are all copyrighted by Merriam-Webster, Incorporated.
Photographs and illustrations are copyrighted by their respective owners, as noted in the credits.
“Encyclopædia Britannica” and other marks that appear throughout the Services belong to Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., its affiliates, or third-party trademark owners.
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Except as permitted by applicable laws, you are prohibited from using any of the marks appearing on the Services without express written consent from Britannica or the respective trademark owners.
Copyright Infringement Claims
If you believe that any copyright infringement exists on any of the Services, please use the following process to notify Britannica. We will act expeditiously to remove infringing material once informed. All claims of copyright infringement should be in writing and should be directed to our Designated Agent below:
Carmen E. Pagán, Copyright Manager
Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.
325 North LaSalle Street, Suite 200
Chicago, Illinois 60654
Your notice must contain the following information:
- Your physical or electronic signature (as either the owner of an exclusive right that is allegedly infringed or as a person authorized to act on behalf of such owner).
- Identification of the copyrighted work claimed to have been infringed or, if multiple copyrighted works at a single online site are covered by a single claim, a representative list of such works at that online site.
- Identification of the material that is claimed to be infringing or to be the subject of infringing activity and that is to be removed or access to which is to be disabled and information reasonably sufficient to permit Britannica to locate the material.
- Information reasonably sufficient to permit Britannica to contact you, such as an address, telephone number and, if available, an electronic mail address.
- A statement that you believe in good faith that use of the material in the manner complained of is not authorized by the copyright owner, its agent or the law.
- A statement that the information in the notice is accurate and that, under penalty of perjury, you are the owner of an exclusive right that is allegedly infringed or are authorized to act on behalf of such owner.
Britannica has a policy of terminating in appropriate circumstances the subscriptions of users who are infringers of copyrights held by others. If your material is removed or access to it is disabled and you believe in good faith that a claim has been wrongly made against you, you may submit a counter-notification to Britannica. Your counter-notification must be in writing and sent to:
Carmen E. Pagán, Copyright Manager
Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.
325 North LaSalle Street, Suite 200
Chicago, Illinois 60654
Your counter-notification must contain the following information:
- Your physical or electronic signature.
- Identification of the material that has been removed or to which access has been disabled and the location at which the material appeared before it was removed or access to it was disabled.
- A statement under penalty of perjury that you have a good faith belief that the material was removed or disabled as a result of mistake or misidentification of the material to be removed or disabled.
- Your name, address, and telephone number, and a statement that you consent to the jurisdiction of Federal District Court for the judicial district in which you are located, or if you are outside of the United States, for any judicial district in which Britannica may be found, and that you will accept service of process from the person who notified Britannica of the alleged infringement or an agent of such person.